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Transmitted Diseases 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) harms the immune system by destroying the white blood cells, thereby increasing the risk for serious infections and certain cancers.  AIDs (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is the final stage of HIV infection. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. Early diagnosis of HIV and consequently treatment using antiretroviral therapy (ART), helps to control the virus reducing the risk of transmitting HIV to others and disease progression to AIDS.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) & Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Hepatitis B and C are liver diseases caused by the hepatitis B or C virus, respectively. These viruses can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. Patients with dual HBV and HCV infection have a more severe liver disease (cirrhosis) and are at an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).


Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common STD. Approximately 60% of chlamydia genital infections in women can be asymptomatic and thus, remain undiagnosed and untreated. Untreated chlamydia infection may ascend to the upper genital tract leading to severe reproductive complications like tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In addition, chlamydia can display urethritis, proctitis and trachoma in both males and females.


Gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  With about 62.2 million cases registered worldwide. In males and females, the gonorrhoea is clinically manifested as urethritis with a purulent discharge from the genitals in females or as cervicitis. Infection in the pelvic region could lead up to infertility in females. 

Mycoplasma & Ureaplasma

Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum are found in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Infection with M.genitalium is associated with increased risk of cervicitis, preterm birth, spontaneous abortion and infertility, while Ureaplasma is a possible cause of bacterial vaginosis.

Herpes virus 1&2

The herpes simplex virus is categorised into 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes oral herpes, and in some cases genital herpes, while HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted infection that causes genital herpes. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections are lifelong. Most oral and genital herpes infections are asymptomatic, but can still be transmitted to others. Infection with HSV-2 increases the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection. 

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